Fragment Synthesizer : GLSL powered HTML5 spectral synthesizer

Some years ago i found out the Virtual ANS synthesizer, this is a very good spectral synthesizer simulating the Russian ANS synthesizer, an unique photoelectronic musical instrument where the score is a drawn sound spectrogram, the x axis of the score represent time and the y axis represent frequency.

Since then i have a great interest in this sort of synthesis and method of composing and have an ongoing large project heavily related to the Virtual ANS.

Fragment Synthesizer is a fun side experiment made quickly where the initial thought was : What if you set GLSL produced images as the source of a spectral synthesizer?

The result is the Fragment Synthesizer web application

This is a full blown stereophonic (the color matter, red for left, green for right) spectral synthesizer which is constantly playing a slice of a GLSL produced image/animation, you can compose by editing the fragment shader or by just copy-pasting code from Shadertoy and then convert it to the Fragment Synthesizer format by clicking on the convert button.

The web app. consist of 3 parts :

  • The score produced by a fragment shader with a vertical bar representing the slice which will be played by the synthesizer
  • A live code editor with the ability to compile as you type (with errors reporting), this is used to edit the GLSL fragment shader and subsequently to compose. (the code editor is powered by the CodeMirror library)
  • Controls (volume slider, button to convert Shadertoy code to Fragment Synthesizer code and a slider to move the playing slice) powered by my own JavaScript widget library

How does it work?

Audio side :

The Fragment Synthesizer is just a simple additive synthesizer under the hood, it is powered by a simple wavetable which is generated with this code :

        _wavetable_size = 32768,
        _wavetable = (function (wsize) {
                var wavetable = new Float32Array(wsize),

                    wave_phase = 0,
                    wave_phase_step = 2 * Math.PI / wsize,

                    s = 0;

                for (s = 0; s < wsize; s += 1) {
                    wavetable[s] = Math.sin(wave_phase);

                    wave_phase += wave_phase_step;

                return wavetable;

There is then an oscillator for each lines of the score, oscillators are generated by this function :

    var _generateOscillatorSet = function (n, base_frequency, octaves) {
        var y = 0,
            frequency = 0.0,
            octave_length = n / octaves;
        _oscillators = [];

        for (y = n; y >= 0; y -= 1) {
            frequency = base_frequency * Math.pow(2, y / octave_length);

            var osc = {
                freq: frequency,
                phase_index: Math.random() * _wavetable_size, 
                phase_step: frequency / _audio_context.sampleRate * _wavetable_size

On the Fragment Synthesizer the starting frequency is 16.34 hertz (bottom of the score) and the y axis span 10 octaves, this is hardcoded but could be fun to let the user change it, the number of oscillators change as the score height change and it depend of the window height, if the user resize the window, the number of oscillators will change.

One of the most important function is the _computeNoteBuffer function, it will transform the pixels array of a vertical slice into an usable and fast to process data structure consisting of a single float32 typed array, each entries (an entry is in fact 5 entries because data is packed linearly into the array) of this array describe which oscillator to play along with data related to how it should play, here is what the 5 entries are :

  • The index of the oscillator to play
  • The previous left side gain value for this oscillator
  • The previous right side gain value for this oscillator
  • The current left side gain value for this oscillator
  • The current right side gain value for this oscillator

The gain value for each side is determined by the red and green component of the pixel value.

The previous gain value is used because it is interpolated when played, this produce a better sound without crackles when the gain value vary greatly.

This function is actually called in the audio callback (it is very fast so ok), it is called for each frames, here is how the number of samples before the next note is computed :

        _fps = 60,
        _note_time = 1 / _fps,
        _note_time_samples = Math.round(_note_time * _sample_rate),

Here is the code of the _computeNoteBuffer function :

    var _computeNoteBuffer = function () {
        for (i = 0; i < _note_buffer.length; i += 1) {
            _note_buffer[i] = 0;
        var note_buffer = _note_buffer,
            pvl = 0, pvr = 0, pr, pg, r, g,
            inv_full_brightness = 1 / 255.0,

            dlen = _data.length,
            y = _canvas_height - 1, i,
            volume_l, volume_r,
            index = 0;

        for (i = 0; i < dlen; i += 4) { pr = _prev_data[i]; pg = _prev_data[i + 1]; r = _data[i]; g = _data[i + 1]; if (r > 0 || g > 0) {
                volume_l = r * inv_full_brightness;
                volume_r = g * inv_full_brightness;
                pvl = pr * inv_full_brightness;
                pvr = pg * inv_full_brightness;

                note_buffer[index] = y;
                note_buffer[index + 1] = pvl;
                note_buffer[index + 2] = pvr;
                note_buffer[index + 3] = volume_l - pvl;
                note_buffer[index + 4] = volume_r - pvr;
            } else {
                if (pr > 0 || pg > 0) {
                    pvl = pr * inv_full_brightness;
                    pvr = pg * inv_full_brightness;

                    note_buffer[index] = y;
                    note_buffer[index + 1] = pvl;
                    note_buffer[index + 2] = pvr;
                    note_buffer[index + 3] = -pvl;
                    note_buffer[index + 4] = -pvr;

            y -= 1;

            index += 5;
        _prev_data = _data;
        _swap_buffer = true;

Now the core audio code where the magic happen (nothing really fancy here except the interpolation) :

    var _audioProcess = function (audio_processing_event) {
        var output_buffer = audio_processing_event.outputBuffer,
            output_data_l = output_buffer.getChannelData(0),
            output_data_r = output_buffer.getChannelData(1),
            output_l = 0, output_r = 0,
            wavetable = _wavetable,
            note_buffer = _note_buffer,
            note_buffer_len = note_buffer.length,
            wavetable_size_m1 = _wavetable_size - 1,
            lerp_t_step = 1 / _note_time_samples,
            s, j;
        for (sample = 0; sample < output_data_l.length; sample += 1) {
            output_l = 0.0;
            output_r = 0.0;

            for (j = 0; j < note_buffer_len; j += 5) { var osc_index = note_buffer[j], previous_volume_l = note_buffer[j + 1], previous_volume_r = note_buffer[j + 2], diff_volume_l = note_buffer[j + 3], diff_volume_r = note_buffer[j + 4]; osc = _oscillators[osc_index]; s = wavetable[osc.phase_index & wavetable_size_m1]; output_l += (previous_volume_l + diff_volume_l * _lerp_t) * s; output_r += (previous_volume_r + diff_volume_r * _lerp_t) * s; osc.phase_index += osc.phase_step; if (osc.phase_index >= _wavetable_size) {
                    osc.phase_index -= _wavetable_size;
            output_data_l[sample] = output_l;
            output_data_r[sample] = output_r;
            _lerp_t += lerp_t_step;
            _curr_sample += 1;

            if (_curr_sample >= _note_time_samples) {
                _lerp_t = 0;

                _curr_sample = 0;

Visual side :

On the visual side, it is powered by WebGL and GLSL, there is a basic screen aligned quad with a fragment shader applied to it and then for each frames a readPixels call is made to get the user chosen (_play_position) vertical slice pixels array which will get converted in the audio callback by the computeNoteBuffer function, here is the code called for each frames :

    var _frame = function (raf_time) { 
        _gl.uniform1f(_gl.getUniformLocation(_program, "globalTime"), (raf_time - _time) / 1000);
        _gl.uniform2f(_gl.getUniformLocation(_program, "iMouse"), _mx, _my);

        _gl.drawArrays(_gl.TRIANGLE_STRIP, 0, 4);

        if (_swap_buffer) {
            _gl.readPixels((_canvas_width - 1) * _play_position, 0, 1, _canvas_height, _gl.RGBA, _gl.UNSIGNED_BYTE, _data);

            _swap_buffer = false;

        _raf = window.requestAnimationFrame(_frame);

And voilĂ , the core of the synthesizer explained.

Note : Borrowed from Shadertoy, the resolution, iMouse and globalTime uniforms are defined and can be used in the fragment shader to do the cool stuff! 🙂

The full source code is available on github

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Simple Python automation script to include content inside files

Bored of writing the same text chunk for your online store products description or ever wanted to have an “include” directive in JavaScript?

Here is a tiny automation script made in Python, i use it to include repetitive content inside HTML files, it read all *.html files (the extension can be changed on line 30) line by line in the directory the script is executed from and any {include=filename} tag found is replaced by the file “filename” content, it is fully recursive.

Note : The script do not check for circularity… so do not include a file including itself or similar stuff 🙂

Note : I am also using a variant written in the Anubis language for JavaScript which include a simple #include filename directive, that variant is also a tiny automatic build system which look for changes in a directory and build automatically the application package consisting of a single JS and CSS minified file if a file has changed, that way i just focus on writing code, the build system produce everything in the background when it detect a change and to test the app i just have to refresh the page in the browser, i may share it one day but the code is uglier than this. 🙂

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

import os
import re
import sys
import glob

include_regex = re.compile("{include=(.*?)}")

def get_line_content(file):
    content = ""
    current_line = 0
    with open(file, 'r') as f:
        for line in f:
            inc =
            if inc:
                inc_filename =
                content += get_line_content(inc_filename)

                print("including " + inc_filename + ", include directive found in file " + file + " at line " + str(current_line))
                content += line
            current_line += 1
    return content

for file in glob.glob("*.html"):
    head, tail = os.path.split(file)
    output_filename = "output/" + tail
    content = ""
    print("processing " + file)
    content = get_line_content(file)
    print("producing " + output_filename)
    f = open(output_filename, 'w')

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Monitoring files change with PHP

This article is about monitoring all files change on a regular basis with a little PHP script and it follow the malicious code removal article but it can be useful for a huge number of things even if the usage of PHP may limit its applications.

Monitoring files change is a good way to catch any kind of PHP infections before it is too late and be aware of anything suspicious happening on your files, this article is not only about PHP infections even if the script was made to prevent them, the solution presented here can be used for many other things… not only for PHP files, it is quite generic.

A way of doing it on Unix systems is to make use of the “find” and any hashes generator like “md5sum” like so :

find . -type f -exec md5sum  {} \; > md5sums_list
md5sum -c md5sum_list

Combined with some kind of storage to store the hashes, this is a fast and very simple way of checking if files differ (it can also be done easily in PHP) and know which files has been changed but if you want to see actual changes, you will need a more advanced method.

There is pretty good softwares which are doing that already and in much better way (like auditd) but i wanted a simple cross-platform solution to be aware of any files modification to prevent infections before everything is screwed… this is actually what is under the hood of popular protection plugins for WordPress like Wordfence, you could create a similar plugin quite easily if you dump the data into a database.

The PHP script presented here scan recursively all files which are in a specified directory on a regular basis and log the files which were modified between two scan along with their content (can be very memory hungry so it is restricted based on the file size) and content difference (thank to the finediff library), it is very fast because it only check for differences in filesize and it is able to do logs rotation, i set it to run as a cron job every hours on a server and it work like a charm.

But an issue show up rapidly… how do you make sens of the vast amount of log produced?

This is where the web log viewer kick in, this is a rather simple app. made with the DataTables library, just a file input field to be able to load the log file and a table but this is enough to quickly see what is going on with your files for each scans and you can even see rapidly the differences thank to the HTML render of the finediff library when you click on the file row.

PHP files monitoring logs web viewerlive version

Now, to start monitor your files, you have to call files_monitor.php

But before you likely have to configure it for your usage :

  • Change $target_directory value by the directory you want to monitor (all .php files in this directory will be monitored)
  • Change $log_directory value by the directory you want to store produced log files
  • Change $filesize_content_to_log_limit value by the amount of bytes you want, all files under or equal that size will have their content and the content diff. logged (i use 50000 for 50kb which may be enough for .php files)
  • Change $log_rotation_filesize value by the amount of bytes you want for the log rotation to kick in (like 10000000 for 10mb)

Idea : Could be fun to add a pretty report by mail or message, if you have any suggestions, please share it.

Idea : Could be very fun to serve the log data in real-time to the viewer.

Note : If you want to monitor other kind of files than .php files you have to change the conditional at line 67 or extend it or remove it if you want to log every files.

Note : Due to the use of the file_get_contents function and many other things, the script may get very memory hungry for very large files and it may get very resources hungry as well if you log diff content (although this can be tweaked by changing the way the diff is produced, right now it is word based) and content of large files.

Disclaimer : I take no responsibility for any loss or damage suffered as a result of using the scripts presented here.

Download :


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How to remove malicious code infecting every PHP files of a website

A few month ago i stumbled upon some malicious replicating code (PHP.Anuna and PHP/Agent.GC) infecting all of my php files by inserting the same malicious code at the start of every files… slowing down all the website and gathering informations, this was a mess but it can be solved easily.

If you encounter malicious code from these or variants which are using the same signature i will show you how you can clean all of your website files very quickly and monitor it to prevent any other threats (look up the next article) so you can react before it is too late and let it to never happen again.

Here is a little PHP script to run on your server which recursively remove all the malicious code for every .php files in a specified folder based on a virus signature, it is very simple but also very effective for this kind of infection.

If there is any infections found it will show which file it cleaned up and where in the file the malicious code was, there is a report at the end of the decontamination process which will show you how much files were treated.

You likely have to configure it before using it because the signature will be different for each infections :

  • Change $target_directory value by the directory you want to clean up
  • Change $virus_begin_signature_str value by the few starting characters of the malicious code
  • Change $virus_end_signature_str value by the end of the malicious code

Disclaimer : I take no responsibility for any loss or damage suffered as a result of using this script, always backup your stuff first.

Note : Due to the use of the file_get_contents function, the script may get very memory hungry for large files.

$target_directory = '/var/www/';

//$virus_begin_signature_str = '$pmtccnmmns = \'341]88M4P8]37]278]225]241]334]';
$virus_begin_signature_str = 'd($n)-1);} @error_rP6]';
$virus_end_signature_str = '$pkvpncwqkl(""); $pkvpncwqkl=(468-347); $pmtccnmmns=$pkvpncwqkl-1; ?>';
$virus_name = 'PHP Agent.GC'; // just for pretty print, work with PHP.Anuna and variants

$recursive_directory_iter = new RecursiveDirectoryIterator($target_directory);
$iterator = new RecursiveIteratorIterator($recursive_directory_iter);

$decontaminated_files_count = 0;

foreach ($iterator as $filename => $cur)
	$path_info = pathinfo($filename);
	if (!isset($path_info['extension'])) {
    if ($path_info['extension'] !== 'php') {
	echo "Checking: '".$filename."'".PHP_EOL;
    $contents = file_get_contents($filename);
	$virus_begin_pos = strpos($contents, $virus_begin_signature_str);

    if ($virus_begin_pos !== false && $filename !== __FILE__) {
        echo $virus_name." found in '".$filename."'".PHP_EOL;
		$virus_end_str = $virus_end_signature_str;
		$virus_end_pos = strpos($contents, $virus_end_str) + strlen($virus_end_str);
		$before_virus_content = substr($contents, 0, $virus_begin_pos);
		$after_virus_content = substr($contents, $virus_end_pos);
		echo $virus_name." content between start pos ".$virus_begin_pos." and end pos ".$virus_end_pos." deleted".PHP_EOL;
		$contents = $before_virus_content.$after_virus_content;

        file_put_contents($filename, $contents);

echo $decontaminated_files_count." files were infected and decontaminated in the directory '".$target_directory."'".PHP_EOL;
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